PHULWARI KI NAAL WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

 Located  near Gujarat Rajasthan border in the Aravali hills ,  the world’s oldest mountain range Phulwari Ki Nal Wildlife Sanctuary was notified as a wildlife sanctuary in 1983 in recognition of its rich biodiversity . It is known for its tropical dry deciduous forests of miscellaneous species with an abundant under growth of bamboo.
       The climate within the Sanctuary is  perennially pleasant with no extreme fluctuation of temperature . Its hilly terrain is interspersed with natural rivulets ,  streams and waterfalls. The meandering gorgeous Vakal river bisects the century into two equal halves and flows southwards for its final confluence with the famous Sabarmati river in Gujarat . Some mountain peaks that are over 950 metres above MSL add to the majestic awe  of the sanctuary .
         The rich vegetal   cover and woodland provides an excellent natural habitat to a variety of mammals . The most beautiful member of the cat family the leopard is found here in good number . Indian Balloon Frog , the world’s smallest frog is an important fauna present in  this sanctuary . The other carnivores include fox , hyena ,  jungle cat , jackal ,  toddy cat and Small Indian civet . The herbivores include the rare four – horned  antelope , Chinkara  and Wild Boar . Besides these Sloth bear ,  Porcupine and Pangolins are  also found here . Common mongoose is present in good number . Pale hedgehog ,  a nocturnal insectivorous animal is visible generally near ditches and ponds  during night especially in the rainy season . The biggest roost of Flying Foxes in the state that can glide from one tree to another is confined to this biotop and can be watched at several spots like Arjun Pura ,  Amba ,  Bhuja ,  Chali Bokda and Ambavi . The various habitat types and geographical features provide a safe shelter to a number of reptiles like Marsh crocodile ,  Indian Monitor Lizard ,  Chameleon ,  Rat snake ,  Green Keelback snake ,  Tree Snakes ,  Indian Krait ,  Russell Viper ,  Indian Cobra and Python . Indian Bull Frog and Indian Skipper Frog are in abundance in the sanctuary .  Giant Wood Spiders the biggest of its species and ants that build their  house on tree can be seen here .
         Bird lovers can  watch over 235 varieties of birds. The White Naped Tit ,  a bird endemic to this sanctuary ,  can be spotted often in its western outskirts .  Besides these , the sanctuary is replete with several varieties of butterflies , moths and other insects . Other species include Black Bird  , Golden Oriole ,  Bee Eaters ,  Cuckoo ,  Peafowl ,  Dove ,  Drongo , Fly Catchers , Grey Jungle Fowl , Myna  ,  Muniya  ,  Swallow ,  Woodpecker , Green  Pigeon ,  Falcon ,   Parakeet , Hornbill and Green Barbet . Winter visitor birds can be seen in the wetlands and river banks . In addition to all these ,  Wild Tussar Moth  , Millipede and Moon Moth can also be seen during rains . Several varieties of freshwater sponges can be seen clinging on rocks near Wakal river . A  species of crab is also present in the hill streams of the sanctuary.
         In floral diversity ,  the sanctuary is one of the richest . It has a huge variety of trees ,  shrubs , herbs , tubers ,  climbers and grasses . Along water courses tall semi-evergreen trees like Jamun , Chironji. ,  Arjun  , Karonda , Bargad ,  Khajur ,  Karanj , Akol etc.  and on the upper and middle slopes ,  Salar, Godal , Khirni , Haldu  , Dhavra , Tendu and Umbia  are usually found  .  The sanctuary is a treasure house of medicinal plants of over one hundred  varieties . Rare species like Brahmi and Safed Musli are also found  here .
      The Orchid Paradise of Rajasthan ,  Phulwari Ki Nal has forests that are dense and multistoried providing a serene panoramic view when seen from distance . And this makes it extremely attractive for tourists . It supports many species of both species of orchids that grow on earth and as also those that grow on trees . Due to the presence of the largest Mahua grooves , it has become the largest orchid belt of Rajasthan state.
          With their bewildering range of flowers and beautiful colour combination ,  orchids have become a source of profound aesthetic pleasure. The striking resemblances of their flowers with various forms of animal life catches the attention of everyone who beholds them . Commonly known as the orchid family ,  the flowers are often colourful and fragrant . Among the features that distinguish this family from others include the bilateral symmetry of the flowers ,  many resupinate ( upside down ) flowers highly modified petal and numerous small seeds . Orchids that grow on a support are called  Epiphytic orchids . They have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few metres long . In the older parts of the roots ,  a modified spongy epidermis has the function to absorb humidity .
      Orchidarium may generally be  referred to a vivarium meant for the cultivation of orchids . From scientific point of view ,  it is an area especially dedicated for collection of various orchids that are displayed for the purpose of conservation ,  education and awareness .

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